Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Breast cancer is prevelant amongst woman but men are at high risk as well.... find out more

By Denisia Adams

curt (kûrt)
1. Rudely brief or abrupt, as in speech or manner
2. Using few words; terse
3. Having been shortened

What fish is known to travel north between the months of May and July, in their millions, up along the coastline?

A – Whales B – Koi C- Sardines
Answer: C- Sardines

Did you know in 2000 Reality TV introduced in the form of Survivor, based on Swedish game show Operation Robinson. DID YOU KNOW In Washington state, it is against the law to boast that one's parents are rich. In Maryland, it's illegal to play Randy Newman's "Short People" on the radio. In Alabama it is illegal to play Dominoes on Sunday.

How to live in the moment
Living in the moment is all about living like there's no tomorrow. It takes practice but in the end, you'll lead a fuller life. To do this you must realize beauty in every moment, and in everyday activities. This is your life, now live!

1.Take notice of the world around you. No matter what you're doing, try to find something beautiful around you. Maybe on your way to work or school, you go over a beautiful bridge, or you get a view of the sunrise behind the city buildings. Realizing these small things can bring life and happiness even to the most boring or routine days.

2.Focus on whatver you doing Even if you're just walking, or wiping the counter - how does it feel? There's probably some kind of commentary spinning through your mind, and it probably has to do with something other than what you're doing. Let those thoughts go and focus on what is (not what was, or what could be). In Buddhism, this is referred to as mindfulness. Pay attention to your senses - touch, sight, smell, sound, and taste. Pretend it's the very last time you'll ever experience whatever you're experiencing. Have you ever been so engrossed in something that it seemed like the rest of the world just disappeared? Living in the moment is about creating that state of mind at any time.

3.Smile when you wake up. You can set the tone of appreciation and awareness for the next 24 hours by simply waking up and smiling. Don't wake up with a groan and a smash of your alarm clock. There's scientific proof that the expressions that you make with your face can actually influence how you feel. In particular, true happiness is most closely tied to a Duchenne smile which involves smiling with your eyes, as well as your mouth.

4.Commit random, spontaneous acts of kindness. Whether it's donating 1 dollar to a fund at the pharmacy, picking up litter, or helping victims of natural disasters, keep alert in every moment of your day for some way in which you can make a small difference. Even the smallest thing, like complimenting somebody, can bring joy. It's the most spontaneous and unexpected acts of kindness that produce the greatest impact, and you can't be sensitive to those kinds of opportunities unless you're living in the moment.

5.Minimize activities that dull your awareness of the moment. What are you doing that tempts your mind to run away from the present? For most people,watching teleivision puts you in a passive state of mind, and time slips right by. Daydreaming and getting lost in a good movie or book isn't bad, but it's not living in the moment because it places your concentration on something that isn't right here, right now; it's a form of escapism. Don't zone out; zone in. Do things that are active, and that encourage you to look around and engage the world in that moment. Playing a game, playing an instrument are all activities that lend themselves to mindfulness.

Norah Mabota a mammographer and Johan. They joined us today to discuss our Gender Hub topic being breast cancer in males. Johan in fact is a breast cancer survivor and he joined us to share with us his experience. To find out more about breast cancer in males, continue reading:

Compiled by Professor Justus Apffelstaedt, Associate Professor: University of Stellenbosch and Head of the Breast Clinic: Tygerberg Hospital

What is the incidence of breast cancer in men?
For each 100 women that we see with breast cancer, we see one man. Therefore the risk is low, particularly in comparison to cancers such as lung, prostate or colon. The National Cancer Registry states that the life-time risk of suffering breast cancer in males is in between 1 in 500 to 1 in 1000, depending on race. Men at any age may develop breast cancer, but it is usually detected in men between 60 and 70 years of age (compared to women, usually detected from the age of 30).

Is there an update on the incidence statistics of breast cancer in men?
There is no new data available.

Do men get the same types of breast cancer as women?
The following types of breast cancer are found in men:
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma: Cancer that has spread beyond the cells lining ducts in the breast. Most men with breast cancer have this type of cancer.
Ductal carcinoma in situ: Abnormal cells that are found in the lining of a duct; also called intraductal carcinoma.
Inflammatory breast cancer: A type of cancer in which the breast looks red and swollen and feels warm.
Paget disease of the nipple: A tumour that has grown from ducts beneath the nipple onto the surface of the nipple.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells found in one of the lobes or sections of the breast), which sometimes occurs in women, has not been seen in men.

Is there any updated research on the causes of breast cancer in men, treatment options etc.?
No, most research papers that I am aware of are single institution series. No organized trial has taken place to find the best therapy. The disease is just too rare.

What are the possible causes in men and does this include a family history?
Family history and known carriers of the breast cancer gene mutation BRCA-1 and 2 have a higher chance of breast cancer. The breast cancer risk of male BRCA carriers of suffering breast cancer is estimated at about 10% life-time. Conversely, a male with breast cancer has – depending on this ethnicity – a chance of 5 to 40% of being a BRCA mutation carrier. Since we have been testing all males with breast cancer at Tygerberg for BRCA mutations, we find in about 50% BRCA mutations. Therefore, a male with breast cancer is sounding an alarm bell for all the females in the family: there may be a BRCA mutation present. Other genes linked to breast cancer include P53, P65, ATM en CHECK2. Hereditary breast cancer makes up approximately 5% to 10% of all breast cancer. Some genes related to breast cancer are more common in certain ethnic groups.

Other risk factors include:
Being exposed to radiation.
Having a disease related to high levels of estrogen in the body, such as cirrhosis (liver disease) or Klinefelter syndrome (a genetic disorder).
How would breast cancer be detected in a man?
Men with breast cancer usually have lumps that can be felt.
As men’s breasts are usually not as big as women’s and a mass is therefore more easily palpated by the man. On the other hand, in contrast to women health care seeking behaviour in men is not well developed and most cases that we see are fairly advanced.

The following tests and procedures may be used:
Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The following are different types of biopsies:

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy: The removal of tissue or fluid using a thin needle.
Core biopsy: The removal of tissue using a wide needle.

Excisional biopsy: The removal of an entire lump of tissue.
Estrogen and progesterone receptor test: A test to measure the amount of estrogen and progesterone (hormones) receptors in cancer tissue. If cancer is found in the breast, tissue from the tumour is checked in the laboratory to find out whether estrogen and progesterone could affect the way cancer grows. The test results show whether hormone therapy may stop the cancer from growing.

HER2 test: A test to measure the amount of HER2 in cancer tissue. HER2 is a growth factor protein that sends growth signals to cells. When cancer forms, the cells may make too much of the protein, causing more cancer cells to grow. If cancer is found in the breast, tissue from the tumour is checked in the laboratory to find out if there is too much HER2 in the cells. The test results show whether monoclonal antibody therapy may stop the cancer from growing.
Testing for BRCA 1 and 2 disease-causing mutations is mandatory.

What is the normal treatment?
Treatments for breast cancer in men and women are generally the same. Many men benefit from a combination of different treatments. Here's an overview of the various approaches:
Surgery. The typical treatment for men is a mastectomy, in which the entire breast is removed. Breast-conserving surgery -- in which just the tumour is taken out -- isn't usually possible for an obvious reason. Men don't have much breast tissue to begin with. The surgeon will also take out one or more of the lymph nodes to see if the cancer has spread.
Radiation Therapy. Treatment with radioactive rays or particles is standard after surgery. It's used to help kill off any cancer cells that were missed. In some cases, radiation may be the main treatment.
Chemotherapy. This is treatment with drugs -- either taken by mouth or by injection -- that attack cancer cells. Chemotherapy is often used after surgery to lower the risk of the cancer coming back. For men with advanced cancer or cancer that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic cancer), chemotherapy may be the primary treatment.
Hormonal Therapy. Some kinds of breast cancer need certain hormones to grow. Hormonal therapy blocks the effects of these hormones, choking the cancer. Hormonal therapy is often more successful in men than in women. That's because more men -- about 75% -- have hormone receptor-positive cancer. Your doctor might use tamoxifen or other drugs. The effects of the new aromatase inhibitors like Arimidex and Femara -- as well as the drug Aromasin, known as an aromatase inactivator -- haven't been studied much in men. Sometimes, removal of the testes is used to reduce the amount of certain male hormones in the system. Men with breast cancer should never take testosterone.
Hormonal therapy is often used after surgery to lower the risk of the cancer coming back. For men with locally advanced or metastatic cancer, it may be the primary treatment.

Biological Therapy. This is a new approach. Some men have an excess of a protein that makes cancer spread quickly. Herceptin is a drug that's been approved to treat metastatic breast cancer. It stops this protein from making the cancer cells grow. It may also boost your immune system, giving it more strength to fight the cancer itself.

What role do male hormones and/or estrogen play?
Evidently hormones play an important role, but because the incidence of the disease in men is so rare, there is not intensive research available and the precise role of hormones is unknown.

Men that are treated with estrogen blockers – does this have an effect? E.g. mood swings, feeling irritated or angry.
Men have very limited side effects to estrogen blockers. We previously did orchidectomy (removal of the testes) as part of the hormonal treatment, however we found this to be problematic.

Are the chances of survival higher for men?
No – the chances for survival are lower than for women for a variety of reasons. The most important being that men are less likely to go to a doctor and therefore present themselves with advanced cancers. Due to the anatomy of the male torso with very little breast tissue, small tumours infiltrate early into surrounding tissue and easily gain access to blood and lymph vessels . They often spread early to distant organs such as the liver, bones and lungs.

If a man is diagnosed with breast cancer, does this increase the chances of his daughters developing cancer?
Yes. Each man that is diagnosed with breast cancer should go for genetic testing. The chances are high that he is a carrier of the breast cancer gene mutations and therefore this would be inherited by his children.

Arthur Rubinstein

Love life and life will love you back. Love people and they will love you back.
That’s it for the Morning Cruise, where we cruise through your weekday here on BushRadio 89.5fm live on your stereo between 9am – 12pm with me Denisia Adams. Take Care ... make the best of your day and Keep the Faith. Stay Real!!!!!!!!!!

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